Incidence and incidence trends of the most frequent cancers in adolescent and young adult Americans, including "nonmalignant/noninvasive" tumors

Ronald D. Barr, Lynn A G Ries, Denise R. Lewis, Linda C. Harlan, Theresa H Keegan, Bradley H Pollock, W. Archie Bleyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND Incidence rates and trends of cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 years were reexamined a decade after the US National Cancer Institute AYA Oncology Progress Review Group was established. METHODS Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through 2011 were used to ascertain incidence trends since the year 2000 of the 40 most frequent cancers in AYAs, including tumors with nonmalignant/noninvasive behavior. RESULTS Seven cancers in AYAs exhibited an overall increase in incidence; in 4, the annual percent change (APC) exceeded 3 (kidney, thyroid, uterus [corpus], and prostate cancer); whereas, in 3, the APC was between 0.7 and 1.4 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia and cancers of the colorectum and testis). Eight cancers exhibited statistically significant decreases in incidence among AYAs: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), fibromatous neoplasms, melanoma, and cancers of the anorectum, bladder, uterine cervix, esophagus, and lung, each with an APC less than -1. AYAs had a higher proportion of noninvasive tumors than either older or younger patients. CONCLUSIONS An examination of cancer incidence patterns in AYAs observed over the recent decade reveal a complex pattern. Thyroid cancer by itself accounts for most of the overall increase and is likely caused by overdiagnosis. Reductions in cervix and lung cancer, melanoma, and KS can be attributed to successful national prevention programs. A higher proportion of noninvasive tumors in AYAs than in children and older adults indicates a need to revise the current system of classifying tumors in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1000-1008
Number of pages9
JournalCancer
Volume122
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

Fingerprint

Young Adult
Incidence
Neoplasms
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Melanoma
SEER Program
Uterine Neoplasms
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
Testicular Neoplasms
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Thyroid Neoplasms
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Cervix Uteri
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Esophagus
Lung Neoplasms
Prostatic Neoplasms
Thyroid Gland
Kidney
Lung

Keywords

  • adolescent
  • cancer incidence
  • United States
  • young adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Incidence and incidence trends of the most frequent cancers in adolescent and young adult Americans, including "nonmalignant/noninvasive" tumors. / Barr, Ronald D.; Ries, Lynn A G; Lewis, Denise R.; Harlan, Linda C.; Keegan, Theresa H; Pollock, Bradley H; Bleyer, W. Archie.

In: Cancer, Vol. 122, No. 7, 01.04.2016, p. 1000-1008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Barr, Ronald D. ; Ries, Lynn A G ; Lewis, Denise R. ; Harlan, Linda C. ; Keegan, Theresa H ; Pollock, Bradley H ; Bleyer, W. Archie. / Incidence and incidence trends of the most frequent cancers in adolescent and young adult Americans, including "nonmalignant/noninvasive" tumors. In: Cancer. 2016 ; Vol. 122, No. 7. pp. 1000-1008.
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N2 - BACKGROUND Incidence rates and trends of cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 years were reexamined a decade after the US National Cancer Institute AYA Oncology Progress Review Group was established. METHODS Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through 2011 were used to ascertain incidence trends since the year 2000 of the 40 most frequent cancers in AYAs, including tumors with nonmalignant/noninvasive behavior. RESULTS Seven cancers in AYAs exhibited an overall increase in incidence; in 4, the annual percent change (APC) exceeded 3 (kidney, thyroid, uterus [corpus], and prostate cancer); whereas, in 3, the APC was between 0.7 and 1.4 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia and cancers of the colorectum and testis). Eight cancers exhibited statistically significant decreases in incidence among AYAs: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), fibromatous neoplasms, melanoma, and cancers of the anorectum, bladder, uterine cervix, esophagus, and lung, each with an APC less than -1. AYAs had a higher proportion of noninvasive tumors than either older or younger patients. CONCLUSIONS An examination of cancer incidence patterns in AYAs observed over the recent decade reveal a complex pattern. Thyroid cancer by itself accounts for most of the overall increase and is likely caused by overdiagnosis. Reductions in cervix and lung cancer, melanoma, and KS can be attributed to successful national prevention programs. A higher proportion of noninvasive tumors in AYAs than in children and older adults indicates a need to revise the current system of classifying tumors in this population.

AB - BACKGROUND Incidence rates and trends of cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 15 to 39 years were reexamined a decade after the US National Cancer Institute AYA Oncology Progress Review Group was established. METHODS Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through 2011 were used to ascertain incidence trends since the year 2000 of the 40 most frequent cancers in AYAs, including tumors with nonmalignant/noninvasive behavior. RESULTS Seven cancers in AYAs exhibited an overall increase in incidence; in 4, the annual percent change (APC) exceeded 3 (kidney, thyroid, uterus [corpus], and prostate cancer); whereas, in 3, the APC was between 0.7 and 1.4 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia and cancers of the colorectum and testis). Eight cancers exhibited statistically significant decreases in incidence among AYAs: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), fibromatous neoplasms, melanoma, and cancers of the anorectum, bladder, uterine cervix, esophagus, and lung, each with an APC less than -1. AYAs had a higher proportion of noninvasive tumors than either older or younger patients. CONCLUSIONS An examination of cancer incidence patterns in AYAs observed over the recent decade reveal a complex pattern. Thyroid cancer by itself accounts for most of the overall increase and is likely caused by overdiagnosis. Reductions in cervix and lung cancer, melanoma, and KS can be attributed to successful national prevention programs. A higher proportion of noninvasive tumors in AYAs than in children and older adults indicates a need to revise the current system of classifying tumors in this population.

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