The in vivo mutagenic properties of 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole, two products of peroxynitrite oxidation of guanine, are reported. Two oligodeoxynucleotides of identical sequence, but containing either 2-aminoimidazolone or 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole at a specific site, were ligated into single-stranded M13mp7L2 bacteriophage genomes. Wild-type AB1157 Escherichia coli cells were transformed with the site-specific 2-aminoimidazolone- and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole-containing genomes, and analysis of the resulting progeny phage allowed determination of the in vivo bypass efficiencies and mutational signatures of the DNA lesions. 2-Aminoimidazolone was efficiently bypassed and 91% mutagenic, producing almost exclusively G to C transversion mutations. In contrast, 5-guanidino-4- nitroimidazole was a strong block to replication and 50% mutagenic, generating G to A, G to T, and to a lesser extent, G to C mutations. The G to A mutation elicited by 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole implicates this lesion as a novel source of perosynitrite-induced transition mutations in vivo. For comparison, the error-prone bypass DNA polymerases were overexpressed in the cells by irradiation with UV light (SOS induction) prior to transformation. SOS induction caused little change in the efficiency of DNA polymerase bypass of 2-aminoimidazolone; however, bypass of 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole increased nearly 10-fold. Importantly, the mutation frequencies of both lesions decreased during replication in SOS-induced cells. These data suggest that 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole in DNA are substrates for one or more of the SOS-induced Y-family DNA polymerases and demonstrate that 2-aminoimidazolone and 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole are potent sources of mutations in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas