In-vivo argon laser vascular welding using thermal feedback: Open- and closed-loop patency and collagen crosslinking

Ward Small IV, Peter M. Celliers, George E. Kopchok, Karen M. Reiser, Nicholas J. Heredia, Duncan J. Maitland, David C. Eder, Richard A. London, Mauricio Heilbron, Farabi Hussain, Rodney A. White, Luiz B. Da Silva, Dennis L Matthews

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


An in vivo study of vascular welding with a fiber-delivered argon laser was conducted using a canine model. Longitudinal arteriotomies and venotomies were treated on femoral vein and artery. Laser energy was delivered to the vessel wall via a 400 micrometer optical fiber. The surface temperature at the center of the laser spot was monitored in real time using a hollow glass optical fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. The surface temperature was limited by either a room-temperature saline drip or direct feedback control of the laser using a mechanical shutter to alternately pass and block the laser. Acute patency was evaluated either visually (leak/no leak) or by in vivo burst pressure measurements. Biochemical assays were performed to investigate the possible laser-induced formation or destruction of enzymatically mediated covalent crosslinks between collagen molecules. Viable welds were created both with and without the use of feedback control. Tissues maintained at 50 degrees Celsius using feedback control had an elevated crosslink count compared to controls, while those irradiated without feedback control experienced a decrease. Differences between the volumetric heating associated with open and closed loop protocols may account for the different effects on collagen crosslinks. Covalent mechanisms may play a role in argon laser vascular fusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes
EventLasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 8 1997Feb 8 1997


OtherLasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems VII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Feedback control
  • Infrared thermometiy
  • Tissue fusion
  • Tissue welding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Mathematics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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