In situ T-cell transfection by anti-CD3-conjugated lipid nanoparticles leads to T-cell activation, migration, and phenotypic shift

Azadeh Kheirolomoom, Aris J. Kare, Elizabeth S. Ingham, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Elise R. Robinson, Mo Baikoghli, Mohammed Inayathullah, Jai W. Seo, James Wang, Brett Z. Fite, Bo Wu, Spencer K. Tumbale, Marina N. Raie, R. Holland Cheng, Lisa Nichols, Alexander D. Borowsky, Katherine W Ferrara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ex vivo programming of T cells can be efficacious but is complex and expensive; therefore, the development of methods to transfect T cells in situ is important. We developed and optimized anti-CD3-targeted lipid nanoparticles (aCD3-LNPs) to deliver tightly packed, reporter gene mRNA specifically to T cells. In vitro, targeted LNPs efficiently delivered mCherry mRNA to Jurkat T cells, and T-cell activation and depletion were associated with aCD3 antibody coating on the surface of LNPs. aCD3-LNPs, but not non-targeted LNPs, accumulated within the spleen following systemic injection, with mCherry and Fluc signals visible within 30 min after injection. At 24 h after aCD3-LNP injection, 2-4% of all splenic T cells and 2-7% of all circulating T cells expressed mCherry, and this was dependent on aCD3 coating density. Targeting and transfection were accompanied by systemic CD25+, OX40+, and CD69+ T-cell activation with temporary CD3e ligand loss and depletion of splenic and circulating subsets. Migration of splenic CD8a+ T cells from the white-pulp to red-pulp, and differentiation from naïve to memory and effector phenotypes, followed upon aCD3-LNP delivery. Additionally, aCD3-LNP injection stimulated the secretion of myeloid-derived chemokines and T-helper cytokines into plasma. Lastly, we administered aCD3-LNPs to tumor bearing mice and found that transfected T cells localized within tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes following immunotherapy treatment. In summary, we show that CD3-targeted transfection is feasible, yet associated with complex immunological consequences that must be further studied for potential therapeutic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number121339
JournalBiomaterials
Volume281
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Lipid nanoparticle
  • mRNA
  • Reporter gene
  • T-cell activation
  • T-cell transfection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials

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