Improving Patient Education of Facial Fractures Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

Peter Wickwire, Sukhraj Kahlon, Soroush Kazemi, Travis Tollefson, Toby Steele, Jennifer Chang, Bradley Strong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Advances in 3-dimensional modeling have revolutionized presurgical planning for maxillofacial reconstruction, yet little is known about how this technology may affect patient education. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 2-dimensional computed tomography versus 3-dimensional computed tomography for patient education in maxillofacial reconstruction. Study Design: Crossover study. Setting: General otolaryngology outpatients from a tertiary referral center were recruited. Methods: A single computed tomography data set of a zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture was used to generate 2 educational video tutorials: one in a 2-dimensional format and one in a 3-dimensional format. The tutorials were embedded into the QualtricsXM platform. Participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group 1 viewed the 2-dimensional tutorial, took a self-assessment survey, took an information recall survey, viewed the 3-dimensional tutorial, and finally took a tutorial comparison survey. Group 2 followed the same sequence but viewed the 3-dimensional tutorial followed by the 2-dimensional tutorial. Results: Group 2 participants (viewing the 3-dimensional tutorial first) scored better on the self-assessment survey than their counterparts in group 1 did (P =.023). Group 2 also scored better on the recall survey (P =.042). Of all participants, 61% preferred the 3-dimensional tutorial, and 31% preferred the use of both tutorials together in the comparison survey. Conclusions: Three-dimensional patient educational tutorial regarding a zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture resulted in better knowledge retention and was preferred over the 2-dimensional format.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • 2D
  • 3D
  • facial fracture
  • patient education
  • video tutorials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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