Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children

Marie T. Ruel, Juan A. Rivera, Maria Claudia Santizo, Bo Lönnerdal, Kenneth H. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

131 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective. A community-based, randomized, double-blind intervention trial was conducted to measure the impact of zinc supplementation on young Guatemalan children's morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections. Methods. Children aged 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to receive 4 mL of a beverage containing 10 mg of zinc (as zinc sulfate) daily (7 d/wk) for 7 months (n = 45) or a placebo (n = 44). Morbidity data were collected daily. Diagnoses of diarrhea, fever, and anorexia were based on mothers' definitions. Respiratory infections were defined as the presence of at least two of the following symptoms: runny nose, cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, or fever. Results. High rates of diarrhea and respiratory infections were reported. Children from the placebo group had a 20% episodic prevalence of diarrhea, with 8 episodes/100 d, and a 7% episodic prevalence of respiratory infections, with 3 episodes/100 d. The median incidence of diarrhea among children who received zinc supplementation was reduced by 22% (Wilcoxon rank test), with larger reductions among boys and among children with weight-for-length at baseline lower than the median of the sample (39% reductions in both subgroups). Zinc supplementation also produced a 67% reduction in the percentage of children who had one or more episodes of persistent diarrhea (χ2 test). No significant effects were found on the episodic prevalence of diarrhea, the number of days per episode, or the episodic prevalence or incidence of respiratory infections. Conclusions. The large impact of zinc supplementation on diarrhea incidence suggests that young, rural Guatemalan children may be zinc deficient and that zinc supplementation may be an effective intervention to improve their health and growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)808-813
Number of pages6
JournalPediatrics
Volume99
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1997

Fingerprint

Respiratory Tract Infections
Zinc
Diarrhea
Morbidity
Incidence
Fever
Placebos
Zinc Sulfate
Beverages
Respiratory Sounds
Anorexia
Nonparametric Statistics
Nose
Cough
Respiration
Mothers
Weights and Measures
Health
Growth

Keywords

  • diarrhea
  • experimental trial
  • Guatemala
  • micronutrients
  • respiratory infections
  • zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children. / Ruel, Marie T.; Rivera, Juan A.; Santizo, Maria Claudia; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brown, Kenneth H.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 99, No. 6, 06.1997, p. 808-813.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ruel, Marie T. ; Rivera, Juan A. ; Santizo, Maria Claudia ; Lönnerdal, Bo ; Brown, Kenneth H. / Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children. In: Pediatrics. 1997 ; Vol. 99, No. 6. pp. 808-813.
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abstract = "Objective. A community-based, randomized, double-blind intervention trial was conducted to measure the impact of zinc supplementation on young Guatemalan children's morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections. Methods. Children aged 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to receive 4 mL of a beverage containing 10 mg of zinc (as zinc sulfate) daily (7 d/wk) for 7 months (n = 45) or a placebo (n = 44). Morbidity data were collected daily. Diagnoses of diarrhea, fever, and anorexia were based on mothers' definitions. Respiratory infections were defined as the presence of at least two of the following symptoms: runny nose, cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, or fever. Results. High rates of diarrhea and respiratory infections were reported. Children from the placebo group had a 20{\%} episodic prevalence of diarrhea, with 8 episodes/100 d, and a 7{\%} episodic prevalence of respiratory infections, with 3 episodes/100 d. The median incidence of diarrhea among children who received zinc supplementation was reduced by 22{\%} (Wilcoxon rank test), with larger reductions among boys and among children with weight-for-length at baseline lower than the median of the sample (39{\%} reductions in both subgroups). Zinc supplementation also produced a 67{\%} reduction in the percentage of children who had one or more episodes of persistent diarrhea (χ2 test). No significant effects were found on the episodic prevalence of diarrhea, the number of days per episode, or the episodic prevalence or incidence of respiratory infections. Conclusions. The large impact of zinc supplementation on diarrhea incidence suggests that young, rural Guatemalan children may be zinc deficient and that zinc supplementation may be an effective intervention to improve their health and growth.",
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N2 - Objective. A community-based, randomized, double-blind intervention trial was conducted to measure the impact of zinc supplementation on young Guatemalan children's morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections. Methods. Children aged 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to receive 4 mL of a beverage containing 10 mg of zinc (as zinc sulfate) daily (7 d/wk) for 7 months (n = 45) or a placebo (n = 44). Morbidity data were collected daily. Diagnoses of diarrhea, fever, and anorexia were based on mothers' definitions. Respiratory infections were defined as the presence of at least two of the following symptoms: runny nose, cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, or fever. Results. High rates of diarrhea and respiratory infections were reported. Children from the placebo group had a 20% episodic prevalence of diarrhea, with 8 episodes/100 d, and a 7% episodic prevalence of respiratory infections, with 3 episodes/100 d. The median incidence of diarrhea among children who received zinc supplementation was reduced by 22% (Wilcoxon rank test), with larger reductions among boys and among children with weight-for-length at baseline lower than the median of the sample (39% reductions in both subgroups). Zinc supplementation also produced a 67% reduction in the percentage of children who had one or more episodes of persistent diarrhea (χ2 test). No significant effects were found on the episodic prevalence of diarrhea, the number of days per episode, or the episodic prevalence or incidence of respiratory infections. Conclusions. The large impact of zinc supplementation on diarrhea incidence suggests that young, rural Guatemalan children may be zinc deficient and that zinc supplementation may be an effective intervention to improve their health and growth.

AB - Objective. A community-based, randomized, double-blind intervention trial was conducted to measure the impact of zinc supplementation on young Guatemalan children's morbidity from diarrhea and respiratory infections. Methods. Children aged 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to receive 4 mL of a beverage containing 10 mg of zinc (as zinc sulfate) daily (7 d/wk) for 7 months (n = 45) or a placebo (n = 44). Morbidity data were collected daily. Diagnoses of diarrhea, fever, and anorexia were based on mothers' definitions. Respiratory infections were defined as the presence of at least two of the following symptoms: runny nose, cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, or fever. Results. High rates of diarrhea and respiratory infections were reported. Children from the placebo group had a 20% episodic prevalence of diarrhea, with 8 episodes/100 d, and a 7% episodic prevalence of respiratory infections, with 3 episodes/100 d. The median incidence of diarrhea among children who received zinc supplementation was reduced by 22% (Wilcoxon rank test), with larger reductions among boys and among children with weight-for-length at baseline lower than the median of the sample (39% reductions in both subgroups). Zinc supplementation also produced a 67% reduction in the percentage of children who had one or more episodes of persistent diarrhea (χ2 test). No significant effects were found on the episodic prevalence of diarrhea, the number of days per episode, or the episodic prevalence or incidence of respiratory infections. Conclusions. The large impact of zinc supplementation on diarrhea incidence suggests that young, rural Guatemalan children may be zinc deficient and that zinc supplementation may be an effective intervention to improve their health and growth.

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