Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology

Sundus Javed, Emma C. Skoog, Jay V Solnick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori chronically infects nearlyhalf the world’s population, yet most of those infected remain asymptomatic throughout their lifetime. The outcome of infection—peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer versus asymptomatic colonization—is a product of host genetics, environmental influences, and differences in bacterial virulence factors. Here, we review the current understanding of the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), and a large family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which are among the best understood H. pylori virulence determinants that contribute to disease. Each of these virulence factors is characterized by allelic and phenotypic diversity that is apparent within and across individuals, as well as over time, and modulates inflammation. From the bacterial perspective, inflammation is probably a necessary evil because it promotes nutrient acquisition, but at the cost of reduction in bacterial load and therefore decreases the chance of transmission to a new host. The general picture that emerges is one of a chronic bacterial infection that is dependent on both inducing and carefully regulating the host inflammatory response. A better understanding of these regulatory mechanisms may have implications for the control of chronic inflammatory diseases that are increasingly common causes of human morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
PublisherSpringer-Verlag
Pages21-52
Number of pages32
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Publication series

NameCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Volume421
ISSN (Print)0070-217X
ISSN (Electronic)2196-9965

Fingerprint

Virulence Factors
Helicobacter pylori
Stomach
Pathology
Inflammation
Genomic Islands
Bacterial Load
Cytotoxins
Bacterial Infections
Ulcer
Stomach Neoplasms
Virulence
Membrane Proteins
Chronic Disease
Morbidity
Mortality
Population

Keywords

  • cagPAI
  • Inflammation
  • OMPs
  • VacA
  • Virulence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

Javed, S., Skoog, E. C., & Solnick, J. V. (2019). Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology. In Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology (pp. 21-52). (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Vol. 421). Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_2

Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology. / Javed, Sundus; Skoog, Emma C.; Solnick, Jay V.

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer-Verlag, 2019. p. 21-52 (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Vol. 421).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Javed, S, Skoog, EC & Solnick, JV 2019, Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology. in Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 421, Springer-Verlag, pp. 21-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_2
Javed S, Skoog EC, Solnick JV. Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology. In Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer-Verlag. 2019. p. 21-52. (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_2
Javed, Sundus ; Skoog, Emma C. ; Solnick, Jay V. / Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer-Verlag, 2019. pp. 21-52 (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology).
@inbook{6d7b5f36f44c4834b36fdb2ed0f78f82,
title = "Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology",
abstract = "Helicobacter pylori chronically infects nearlyhalf the world’s population, yet most of those infected remain asymptomatic throughout their lifetime. The outcome of infection—peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer versus asymptomatic colonization—is a product of host genetics, environmental influences, and differences in bacterial virulence factors. Here, we review the current understanding of the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), and a large family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which are among the best understood H. pylori virulence determinants that contribute to disease. Each of these virulence factors is characterized by allelic and phenotypic diversity that is apparent within and across individuals, as well as over time, and modulates inflammation. From the bacterial perspective, inflammation is probably a necessary evil because it promotes nutrient acquisition, but at the cost of reduction in bacterial load and therefore decreases the chance of transmission to a new host. The general picture that emerges is one of a chronic bacterial infection that is dependent on both inducing and carefully regulating the host inflammatory response. A better understanding of these regulatory mechanisms may have implications for the control of chronic inflammatory diseases that are increasingly common causes of human morbidity and mortality.",
keywords = "cagPAI, Inflammation, OMPs, VacA, Virulence",
author = "Sundus Javed and Skoog, {Emma C.} and Solnick, {Jay V}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_2",
language = "English (US)",
series = "Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology",
publisher = "Springer-Verlag",
pages = "21--52",
booktitle = "Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Impact of helicobacter pylori virulence factors on the host immune response and gastric pathology

AU - Javed, Sundus

AU - Skoog, Emma C.

AU - Solnick, Jay V

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Helicobacter pylori chronically infects nearlyhalf the world’s population, yet most of those infected remain asymptomatic throughout their lifetime. The outcome of infection—peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer versus asymptomatic colonization—is a product of host genetics, environmental influences, and differences in bacterial virulence factors. Here, we review the current understanding of the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), and a large family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which are among the best understood H. pylori virulence determinants that contribute to disease. Each of these virulence factors is characterized by allelic and phenotypic diversity that is apparent within and across individuals, as well as over time, and modulates inflammation. From the bacterial perspective, inflammation is probably a necessary evil because it promotes nutrient acquisition, but at the cost of reduction in bacterial load and therefore decreases the chance of transmission to a new host. The general picture that emerges is one of a chronic bacterial infection that is dependent on both inducing and carefully regulating the host inflammatory response. A better understanding of these regulatory mechanisms may have implications for the control of chronic inflammatory diseases that are increasingly common causes of human morbidity and mortality.

AB - Helicobacter pylori chronically infects nearlyhalf the world’s population, yet most of those infected remain asymptomatic throughout their lifetime. The outcome of infection—peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer versus asymptomatic colonization—is a product of host genetics, environmental influences, and differences in bacterial virulence factors. Here, we review the current understanding of the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), and a large family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which are among the best understood H. pylori virulence determinants that contribute to disease. Each of these virulence factors is characterized by allelic and phenotypic diversity that is apparent within and across individuals, as well as over time, and modulates inflammation. From the bacterial perspective, inflammation is probably a necessary evil because it promotes nutrient acquisition, but at the cost of reduction in bacterial load and therefore decreases the chance of transmission to a new host. The general picture that emerges is one of a chronic bacterial infection that is dependent on both inducing and carefully regulating the host inflammatory response. A better understanding of these regulatory mechanisms may have implications for the control of chronic inflammatory diseases that are increasingly common causes of human morbidity and mortality.

KW - cagPAI

KW - Inflammation

KW - OMPs

KW - VacA

KW - Virulence

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066249352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066249352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_2

DO - 10.1007/978-3-030-15138-6_2

M3 - Chapter

C2 - 31123884

AN - SCOPUS:85066249352

T3 - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

SP - 21

EP - 52

BT - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

PB - Springer-Verlag

ER -