Humoral and cellular immune responses of sheep to inactivated and virulent bluetongue virus (BTV) were studied. All sheep inoculated with inactivated BTV developed BTV group-specific nonneutralizing antibodies, as determined by agar-gel immunodiffusion. The development of group-specific, nonneutralizing, complement-fixing antibodies was variable and appeared to be dependent on immunizing BTV serotype, sheep breed, and individual variation. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were never detected after inoculation with the inactivated BTV. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation to BTV soluble antigen was observed with cells from all inoculated Warhill sheep and with cells from 1 of 3 inoculated Suffolk cross sheep. Complement-fixation titers did not appear to correlate with the degree of protection observed, ie, duration of postchallenge-exposure viremia. The development of postchallenge-exposure neutralizing antibody titer was inversely correlated to protective immunity. The development of a response to BTV antigen in the lymphocyte-stimulation test associated most closely with protection. Warhill sheep were afforded better protection, by inoculation with inactivated BTV, to live virus challenge exposure than were the Suffolk cross sheep. Approximately 30% of the inoculated Suffolk cross sheep responded to challenge exposure with intensified clinical signs of blue-tongue, compared with the challenge-exposed control sheep of the same breed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||American Journal of Veterinary Research|
|State||Published - May 1985|
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