Immunochemical screening of pesticides (simazine and cypermethrin) in orange oil

Mikaela Nichkova, Xun Fu, Zheng Yang, Ping Zhong, James R. Sanborn, Dan Chang, Shirley J. Gee, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 μg/L for 1-fold and ∼100 μg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane-acetonitrile partitioning followed by silica solid phase extraction. The method detected levels higher than 0.5 ppm (mg/L). This LOQ is lower than the U.S. EPA tolerance level (0.9 ppm) for cypermethrin in citrus oils. A good correlation (r 2 0.99) between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed for the analysis of both analytes in 1-fold orange oil. Immunochemical screening can be used to reduce instrumental analysis costs by its use in preliminary orange oil screening.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5673-5679
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 8 2009


  • Immunoassay
  • Orange oil
  • Pyrethroids
  • Triazines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Chemistry(all)


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