Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. VIII. Detection of cocaine in equine blood and urine by particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay

C. A. Prange, C. Brockus, S. Wie, R. A. Chung, J. M. Brecht, J. C. Conner, P. A. Dahl, E. L. Lewis, J. McDonald, S. Kalita, F. J. Ozog, M. T. Green, S. Kwiatkowski, J. P. Goodman, L. Sturma, Scott D Stanley, J. M. Yang, T. Wood, P. Henry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We have developed a Particle Concentration Fluorescence Immunoassay (PCFIA) for cocaine as part of a panel of pre- and post-race tests for illegal drugs in racing horses. This PCFIA test is very sensitive, with an I-50 for cocaine of about 2.5 ng/mL. It does not cross-react significantly with scopolamine, atropine, procaine, or ecgonine. Benzoylecgonine cross-reactivity is less than 10%. The test is rapid, and a normal complement of pre-race tests can be analyzed within one hour. This test detects the presence of cocaine or its metabolites in equine urine for up to 48 hours after a dose of 10 mg/horse, and for at least 72 hours if the dose is 80 mg or larger. In serum, the test detects cocaine for at least 8 hours and likely longer at the 10 mg/horse dosing level. The test is many times more sensitive than thin layer chromatographic tests for cocaine, and is capable of improving the quality of both pre- and post-race testing for cocaine in horses. On initial introduction into post-race urine screening the test flagged 2 of 83 samples 'suspect' for cocaine, which samples subsequently confirmed positive for cocaine by mass spectrometry. Because of the ready availability of cocaine and the small doses (less than 10 mg/horse) that are effective in racing horses, a simple, inexpensive, and sensitive test for cocaine is essential for control of abuse of this drug in racing horses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalResearch Communications in Substances of Abuse
Volume10
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

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Cocaine
Immunoassay
Horses
Fluorescence
Urine
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Procaine
Scopolamine Hydrobromide
Drug and Narcotic Control
Atropine
Substance-Related Disorders
Mass Spectrometry
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. VIII. Detection of cocaine in equine blood and urine by particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay. / Prange, C. A.; Brockus, C.; Wie, S.; Chung, R. A.; Brecht, J. M.; Conner, J. C.; Dahl, P. A.; Lewis, E. L.; McDonald, J.; Kalita, S.; Ozog, F. J.; Green, M. T.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Goodman, J. P.; Sturma, L.; Stanley, Scott D; Yang, J. M.; Wood, T.; Henry, P.

In: Research Communications in Substances of Abuse, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1989, p. 1-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prange, CA, Brockus, C, Wie, S, Chung, RA, Brecht, JM, Conner, JC, Dahl, PA, Lewis, EL, McDonald, J, Kalita, S, Ozog, FJ, Green, MT, Kwiatkowski, S, Goodman, JP, Sturma, L, Stanley, SD, Yang, JM, Wood, T & Henry, P 1989, 'Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. VIII. Detection of cocaine in equine blood and urine by particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay', Research Communications in Substances of Abuse, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
Prange, C. A. ; Brockus, C. ; Wie, S. ; Chung, R. A. ; Brecht, J. M. ; Conner, J. C. ; Dahl, P. A. ; Lewis, E. L. ; McDonald, J. ; Kalita, S. ; Ozog, F. J. ; Green, M. T. ; Kwiatkowski, S. ; Goodman, J. P. ; Sturma, L. ; Stanley, Scott D ; Yang, J. M. ; Wood, T. ; Henry, P. / Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. VIII. Detection of cocaine in equine blood and urine by particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay. In: Research Communications in Substances of Abuse. 1989 ; Vol. 10, No. 1. pp. 1-14.
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abstract = "We have developed a Particle Concentration Fluorescence Immunoassay (PCFIA) for cocaine as part of a panel of pre- and post-race tests for illegal drugs in racing horses. This PCFIA test is very sensitive, with an I-50 for cocaine of about 2.5 ng/mL. It does not cross-react significantly with scopolamine, atropine, procaine, or ecgonine. Benzoylecgonine cross-reactivity is less than 10{\%}. The test is rapid, and a normal complement of pre-race tests can be analyzed within one hour. This test detects the presence of cocaine or its metabolites in equine urine for up to 48 hours after a dose of 10 mg/horse, and for at least 72 hours if the dose is 80 mg or larger. In serum, the test detects cocaine for at least 8 hours and likely longer at the 10 mg/horse dosing level. The test is many times more sensitive than thin layer chromatographic tests for cocaine, and is capable of improving the quality of both pre- and post-race testing for cocaine in horses. On initial introduction into post-race urine screening the test flagged 2 of 83 samples 'suspect' for cocaine, which samples subsequently confirmed positive for cocaine by mass spectrometry. Because of the ready availability of cocaine and the small doses (less than 10 mg/horse) that are effective in racing horses, a simple, inexpensive, and sensitive test for cocaine is essential for control of abuse of this drug in racing horses.",
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AU - Chung, R. A.

AU - Brecht, J. M.

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AU - Dahl, P. A.

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AU - Kalita, S.

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AU - Green, M. T.

AU - Kwiatkowski, S.

AU - Goodman, J. P.

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AU - Stanley, Scott D

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AU - Wood, T.

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