Effective immune responses requires a synchronization of a number of different physiological and immunological events. Effective vaccines simulate natural invasion of the body by microbes or parasites. The route of administration of vaccines contributes to the effectiveness of preventing or controlling local or systemic infections. Immune responses to microbial agents usually involve more than one mechanism. For instance, toxins may be neutralized by a single antibody, while cellular interactions are required for destruction of more complex microorganisms. These systems have been illustrated in this review.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine|
|State||Published - 1989|
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