The importance of chronic immune activation in progression to AIDS has been inferred by correlative studies in HIV-infected individuals and in nonhuman primate models of SIV infection. Using the SIV mac251 macaque model, we directly address the impact of immune activation by inhibiting CTLA-4, an immunoregulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells and a subset of regulatory T cells. We found that CTLA-4 blockade significantly increased T cell activation and viral replication in primary SIV mac251 infection, particularly at mucosal sites, and increased IDO expression and activity. Accordingly, protracted treatment with anti-CTLA-4 Ab of macaques chronically infected with SIV mac251 decreased responsiveness to antiretroviral therapy and abrogated the ability of therapeutic T cell vaccines to decrease viral set point. These data provide the first direct evidence that immune activation drives viral replication, and suggest caution in the use of therapeutic approaches for HIV infection in vivo that increase CD4 + T cell proliferation. The Journal of Immunology, 2008, 180: 5439-5447.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - Apr 15 2008|
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