Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors

Ravi Jonnal, Jason R. Besecker, Jack C. Derby, Omer P. Kocaoglu, Barry Cense, Weihua Gao, Qiang Wang, Donald T. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In vertebrate eyes, vision begins when the photoreceptor's outer segment absorbs photons and generates a neural signal destined for the brain. The extreme optical and metabolic demands of this process of phototransduction necessitate continual renewal of the outer segment. Outer segment renewal has been long studied in post-mortem rods using autoradiography, but has been observed neither in living photoreceptors nor directly in cones. Using adaptive optics, which permits the resolution of cones, and temporally coherent illumination, which transforms the outer segment into a "biological interferometer," we observed cone renewal in three subjects, manifesting as elongation of the cone outer segment, with rates ranging from 93 to 113 nm/hour (2.2 to 2.7 μm/day). In one subject we observed renewal occurring over 24 hours, with small but significant changes in renewal rate over the day. We determined that this novel method is sensitive to changes in outer segment length of 139 nm, more than 20 times better than the axial resolution of ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography, the best existing method for depth imaging of the living retina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5257-5270
Number of pages14
JournalOptics Express
Volume18
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2010
Externally publishedYes

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photoreceptors
cones
autoradiography
vertebrates
retina
adaptive optics
elongation
brain
rods
interferometers
tomography
illumination
high resolution
photons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Jonnal, R., Besecker, J. R., Derby, J. C., Kocaoglu, O. P., Cense, B., Gao, W., ... Miller, D. T. (2010). Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors. Optics Express, 18(5), 5257-5270. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.005257

Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors. / Jonnal, Ravi; Besecker, Jason R.; Derby, Jack C.; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Cense, Barry; Gao, Weihua; Wang, Qiang; Miller, Donald T.

In: Optics Express, Vol. 18, No. 5, 01.03.2010, p. 5257-5270.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jonnal, R, Besecker, JR, Derby, JC, Kocaoglu, OP, Cense, B, Gao, W, Wang, Q & Miller, DT 2010, 'Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors', Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 5257-5270. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.005257
Jonnal R, Besecker JR, Derby JC, Kocaoglu OP, Cense B, Gao W et al. Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors. Optics Express. 2010 Mar 1;18(5):5257-5270. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.005257
Jonnal, Ravi ; Besecker, Jason R. ; Derby, Jack C. ; Kocaoglu, Omer P. ; Cense, Barry ; Gao, Weihua ; Wang, Qiang ; Miller, Donald T. / Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors. In: Optics Express. 2010 ; Vol. 18, No. 5. pp. 5257-5270.
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