Imaging and differentiation of mouse embryo tissues by ToF-SIMS

Ligang Wu, Xiaochen Lu, Kristen S. Kulp, Mark G. Knize, Elena S F Berman, Erik J. Nelson, James S. Felton, Kuang Jen J Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) equipped with a gold ion gun was used to image mouse embryo sections and differentiate tissue types (brain, spinal cord, skull, rib, heart and liver). Embryos were paraffin-embedded and then deparaffinized. The robustness and repeatability of the method was determined by analyzing ten tissue slices from three different embryos over a period of several weeks. Using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the spectral data generated by ToF-SIMS, histopathologically identified tissue types of the mouse embryos can be differentiated based on the characteristic differences in their mass spectra. These results demonstrate the ability of ToF-SIMS to determine subtle chemical differences even in fixed histological specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-145
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Image PCA
  • Mouse embryo
  • Paraffin-embedded
  • ToF-SIMS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy


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