PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in preclinical development for psoriasis. This study was undertaken to identify the major phase I metabolites of PAP-1 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Five phase I metabolites, that is 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psoralen (M1), 5-[4-(4-hydroxybutoxy)]psoralen (M2), 5-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M3), 5-[4-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy] psoralen (M4), and 8-hydroxyl-5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (M5), were isolated from the bile of rats and identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The last four metabolites are new compounds. Incubation of PAP-1 with SD rat liver microsomes rendered the same five major metabolites in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent manner suggesting that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in PAP-1 metabolism. Inhibitors of rat CYP1A1/2 (alpha-naphthoflavone) and CYP3A (ketoconazole) but not CYP2D6 (quinidine), CYP2E (diethyldithiocarbamate), or CYP2C9 (sulphaphenazole) blocked the metabolism of PAP-1 in rat microsomes. Of the five metabolites M3, M4, and M5 were found to inhibit Kv1.3 currents with nanomolar IC50s, while M1 and M2 were inactive. Our results identified the Kv1.3-inactive M1 as the major phase I metabolite, and suggest that hydroxylation and O-dealkylation are the major pathways of PAP-1 metabolism. We further conducted a 6-month repeat-dose toxicity study with PAP-1 at 50 mg/kg in both male and female Lewis rats and did not observe any toxic effects.
- 5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (PAP-1)
- CYP isoenzyme
- Kv1.3 activity
- Kv1.3 blocker
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis