Identification of Oligosaccharides in Feces of Breast-fed Infants and Their Correlation with the Gut Microbial Community

Jasmine C C Davis, Sarah M. Totten, Julie O. Huang, Sadaf Nagshbandi, Nina Kirmiz, Daniel A. Garrido, Zachery T. Lewis, Lauren D. Wu, Jennifer T. Smilowitz, J. Bruce German, David A. Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Glycans in breast milk are abundant and found as either free oligosaccharides or conjugated to proteins and lipids. Free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) function as prebiotics by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria while preventing the binding of harmful bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells. Bacteria have adapted to the glycanrich environment of the gut by developing enzymes that catabolize glycans. The decrease in HMOs and the increase in glycan digestion products give indications of the active enzymes in the microbial population. In this study, we quantitated the disappearance of intact HMOs and characterized the glycan digestion products in the gut that are produced by the action of microbial enzymes on HMOs and glycoconjugates from breast milk. Oligosaccharides from fecal samples of exclusively breast-fed infants were extracted and profiled using nanoLC-MS. Intact HMOs were found in the fecal samples, additionally, other oligosaccharides were found corresponding to degraded HMOs and non-HMO based compounds. The latter compounds were fragments of N-glycans released through the cleavage of the linkage to the asparagine residue and through cleavage of the chitobiose core of the N-glycan. Marker gene sequencing of the fecal samples revealed bifidobacteria as the dominant inhabitants of the infant gastrointestinal tracts. A glycosidase from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum was then expressed to digest HMOs in vitro, which showed that the digested oligosaccharides in feces corresponded to the action of glycosidases on HMOs. Similar expression of endoglycosidases also showed that N-glycans were released by bacterial enzymes. Although bifidobacteria may dominate the gut, it is possible that specific minority species are also responsible for the major products observed in feces. Nonetheless, the enzymatic activity correlated well with the known glycosidases in the respective bacteria, suggesting a direct relationship between microbial abundances and catabolic activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2987-3002
Number of pages16
JournalMolecular and Cellular Proteomics
Volume15
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

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Oligosaccharides
Feces
Human Milk
Breast
Polysaccharides
Glycoside Hydrolases
Bacteria
Bifidobacterium
Enzymes
Digestion
Sulfalene
Prebiotics
Glycoconjugates
Asparagine
Gastrointestinal Tract
Milk
Genes
Epithelial Cells
Lipids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Davis, J. C. C., Totten, S. M., Huang, J. O., Nagshbandi, S., Kirmiz, N., Garrido, D. A., ... Lebrilla, C. B. (2016). Identification of Oligosaccharides in Feces of Breast-fed Infants and Their Correlation with the Gut Microbial Community. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, 15(9), 2987-3002. https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M116.060665

Identification of Oligosaccharides in Feces of Breast-fed Infants and Their Correlation with the Gut Microbial Community. / Davis, Jasmine C C; Totten, Sarah M.; Huang, Julie O.; Nagshbandi, Sadaf; Kirmiz, Nina; Garrido, Daniel A.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Wu, Lauren D.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; German, J. Bruce; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

In: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Vol. 15, No. 9, 01.09.2016, p. 2987-3002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Davis, JCC, Totten, SM, Huang, JO, Nagshbandi, S, Kirmiz, N, Garrido, DA, Lewis, ZT, Wu, LD, Smilowitz, JT, German, JB, Mills, DA & Lebrilla, CB 2016, 'Identification of Oligosaccharides in Feces of Breast-fed Infants and Their Correlation with the Gut Microbial Community', Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2987-3002. https://doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M116.060665
Davis, Jasmine C C ; Totten, Sarah M. ; Huang, Julie O. ; Nagshbandi, Sadaf ; Kirmiz, Nina ; Garrido, Daniel A. ; Lewis, Zachery T. ; Wu, Lauren D. ; Smilowitz, Jennifer T. ; German, J. Bruce ; Mills, David A. ; Lebrilla, Carlito B. / Identification of Oligosaccharides in Feces of Breast-fed Infants and Their Correlation with the Gut Microbial Community. In: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 2016 ; Vol. 15, No. 9. pp. 2987-3002.
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