An 11-d-old Holstein bull calf was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of Wisconsin–Madison because of a 4-d history of diarrhea and persistent low-grade fever. Initial diagnosis was enteritis caused by Cryptosporidium and rotavirus. During hospitalization, the calf became stuporous and was only responsive to noxious stimuli, with hypotonia of all 4 limbs, tail, head, and neck. A cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed xanthochromia, with marked lymphocytic pleocytosis, which was suggestive of viral meningitis and/or encephalitis. Aichivirus B, which belongs to the Kobuvirus genus, was tentatively identified in spinal fluid by next-generation DNA sequencing. This virus can affect a multitude of species, including humans and cattle, and has been isolated from both healthy and diarrheic individuals. However, to date, a possible connection with neurologic disease has not been described, to our knowledge.
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