Ibex-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Duikers (Cephalophus Spp)

Francisco R. Carvallo, Francisco A. Uzal, Janet D. Moore, Kenneth Jackson, Akinyi C. Nyaoke, Lisa Naples, Jordan Davis-Powell, Cynthia K. Stadler, Brandon A. Boren, Cristina Cunha, Hong Li, Patricia A. Pesavento

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Eight duikers, representing 3 different species cohoused in a single zoological collection, died in a 10-month period. Black, red-flanked, and yellow-backed duikers were affected, appearing clinically with a combination of anorexia, diarrhea, ataxia, tremors, and/or stupor, followed by death within 72 hours of onset of clinical signs. Consistent gross findings were pulmonary ecchymoses (8/8), generalized lymphadenomegaly (6/8), ascites (5/8), and pleural effusion (4/8). Dense lymphocyte infiltrates and arteritis affected numerous tissues in most animals. Ibex-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) viral DNA was detected in all cases by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Identical ibex-MCF virus sequence was detected in spleen of a clinically healthy ibex (Capra ibex) housed in a separate enclosure 35 meters away from the duikers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary pathology
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020


  • cephalophinae
  • duiker
  • gammaherpesvirus
  • Ibex
  • Ibex-MCFV
  • in situ hybridization
  • malignant catarrhal fever
  • virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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    Carvallo, F. R., Uzal, F. A., Moore, J. D., Jackson, K., Nyaoke, A. C., Naples, L., Davis-Powell, J., Stadler, C. K., Boren, B. A., Cunha, C., Li, H., & Pesavento, P. A. (Accepted/In press). Ibex-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Duikers (Cephalophus Spp). Veterinary pathology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985820918313