Hypospadias: Pathophysiology and etiologic theories

Eric A Kurzrock, Edward Karpman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Hypospadias is a congenital defect of the male urethra and phallus. Most boys with hypospadias have no other signs of under-masculinization or congenital malformations. The incidence appears to be increasing in the developed world. Evidence suggests that the etiology of hypospadias is multifactorial and that environmental conditions may have a role in the increasing incidence. The authors review normal male urethral development, epidemiology and the role of maternal-fetal hormone interactions, androgen synthesis, 5α-reductase, androgen receptor, environmental factors and assisted reproductive technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)288-295
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Endocrinology Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004


  • Androgen
  • Etiology
  • Hypospadias
  • Male
  • Penis
  • Testosterone
  • Urethra

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine


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