Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that consists of low testosterone levels (below the normal range) and spermatogenesis defects leading to subfertility. Hypogonadism due to disorders at pituitary or hypothalamus level is called hypogondatropic hypogonadism or secondary hypogonadism. In this chapter the authors focus on hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism may result from either absent or inadequate hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, or failure originating with decreased pituitary gonadotropins (LH and FSH) secretion. The chapter reviews (1) the development and physiology of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and male sexual function; (2) specific congenital and acquired defects that result; (3) diagnosis and male sexual function; and (4) treatment approaches and male sexual function. Congenital causes of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can be due to defects at the level of the hypothalamus and/or at the level of the pituitary. This chapter lists the signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and discusses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism.
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
- Hypogondatotropic hypogonadism
- Hypothalmic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis
- Male sexual function
ASJC Scopus subject areas