Hyperlipidemia in chronic kidney disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

The risk of cardiovascular events and mortality increases as renal function declines. The standard Framingham risk factors contributing to the relative risk of mortality (RRM) are altered or replaced. While obesity predicts loss of renal function, among dialysis patients obesity predicts survival rather than mortality. Among dialysis patients, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) does not predict mortality; however other risk factors, such as low High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and increased intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), remain cardiovascular risk factors. While HDL levels are decreased as a result of an increased fractional catabolic rate (FCR) both among obese patients with normal renal function and among dialysis patients, the mechanisms responsible for increased HDL FCR may differ. In patients with advanced kidney disease, HDL fails to mature normally as a result of decreased lecithin cholesterol ester transfer protein (LCAT), leaving cholesterol ester-poor, triglyceride (TG)-rich HDL3 and pre-β-HDL. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with insulin resistance, providing another potential mechanistic link to low HDL levels. Increased TG levels are found in an expanded Intermediate Density Lipoprotein (IDL) pool and are associated with mortality risk. Lipoprotein (a) (LP(a)) levels are increased. In patients without renal disease, the concentration of Lp(a) is inversely associated with the size of the apo (a) isoform inherited; Lp (a) levels are increased in patients with kidney disease as consequence of increased concentrations, primarily of the high molecular weight isoform resulting from decreased clearance. Lp (a) levels are also associated with cardiovascular outcome among dialysis patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)987-992
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Artificial Organs
Volume30
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2007

Keywords

  • Apo A-l
  • Apo A-ll
  • Apo C-lll
  • CETP
  • Chylomicrons
  • Hepatic lipase
  • IDL
  • LCAT
  • Lp(a)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics

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