Hyperglycemia induces toll-like receptor-2 and -4 expression and activity in human microvascular retinal endothelial cells: Implications for diabetic retinopathy

Uthra Rajamani, Ishwarlal Jialal

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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes visual impairment in working age adults and hyperglycemia-mediated inflammation is central in DR. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses and inflammation. However, scanty data is available on their role in DR. Hence, in this study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression and activity in hyperglycemic human retinal endothelial cells (HMVRECs). HMVRECs were treated with hyperglycemia (HG) or euglycemia and mRNA and protein levels of TLR-2, TLR-4, MyD88, IRF3, and TRIF as well as NF-B p65 activation were measured. IL-8, IL-1β, TNF- and MCP-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 as well as monocyte adhesion to HMVRECs were also assayed. HG (25 mM) significantly induced TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein in HMVRECs. It also increased both MyD88 and non-MyD88 pathways, nuclear factor-B (NF-B), biomediators, and monocyte adhesion. This inflammation was attenuated by TLR-4 or TLR-2 inhibition, and dual inhibition by a TLR inhibitory peptide as well as TLR2 and 4 siRNA. Additionally, antioxidant treatment reduced TLR-2 and TLR4 expression and downstream inflammatory markers. Collectively, our novel data suggest that hyperglycemia induces TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation and downstream signaling mediating increased inflammation possibly via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and could contribute to DR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number790902
JournalJournal of Diabetes Research
Volume2014
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 30 2014

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Toll-Like Receptor 2
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Diabetic Retinopathy
Human Activities
Hyperglycemia
Endothelial Cells
Inflammation
Toll-Like Receptors
Messenger RNA
Monocytes
Proteins
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Vision Disorders
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Interleukin-8
Interleukin-1
Innate Immunity
Small Interfering RNA
Reactive Oxygen Species
Antioxidants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

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abstract = "Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes visual impairment in working age adults and hyperglycemia-mediated inflammation is central in DR. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses and inflammation. However, scanty data is available on their role in DR. Hence, in this study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression and activity in hyperglycemic human retinal endothelial cells (HMVRECs). HMVRECs were treated with hyperglycemia (HG) or euglycemia and mRNA and protein levels of TLR-2, TLR-4, MyD88, IRF3, and TRIF as well as NF-B p65 activation were measured. IL-8, IL-1β, TNF- and MCP-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 as well as monocyte adhesion to HMVRECs were also assayed. HG (25 mM) significantly induced TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein in HMVRECs. It also increased both MyD88 and non-MyD88 pathways, nuclear factor-B (NF-B), biomediators, and monocyte adhesion. This inflammation was attenuated by TLR-4 or TLR-2 inhibition, and dual inhibition by a TLR inhibitory peptide as well as TLR2 and 4 siRNA. Additionally, antioxidant treatment reduced TLR-2 and TLR4 expression and downstream inflammatory markers. Collectively, our novel data suggest that hyperglycemia induces TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation and downstream signaling mediating increased inflammation possibly via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and could contribute to DR.",
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