The majority of patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) resulting from human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection develop humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). We used an animal model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/beige mice to study the pathogenesis of HHM. SCID/beige mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with a human ATL line (RV-ATL) and were euthanized 20 to 32 days after inoculation. SCID/beige mice with engrafted RV-ATL cells developed lymphoma in the mesentery, liver, thymus, lungs, and spleen. The lymphomas stained positively for human CD45RO surface receptor and normal mouse lymphocytes stained negatively confirming the human origin of the tumors. The ATL cells were immunohistochemically positive for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). In addition, PTHrP mRNA was highly expressed in lymphomas when compared to MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-positive cell line). Mice with lymphoma developed severe hypercalcemia. Plasma PTHrP concentrations were markedly increased in mice with hypercalcemia, and correlated with the increase in plasma calcium concentrations. Bone densitometry and histomorphometry in lymphoma-bearing mice revealed significant bone loss because of a marked increase in osteoclastic bone resorption. RV-ATL cells contained 1.5 HTLV-1 proviral copies of the tax gene as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, tax expression was not detected by Western blot or reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR in RV-ATL cells, which suggests that factors other than Tax are modulators of PTHrP gene expression. The SCID/beige mouse model mimics HHM as it occurs in ATL patients, and will be useful to investigate the regulation of PTHrP expression by ATL cells in vivo.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||American Journal of Pathology|
|State||Published - 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine