Humoral and cellular immune responses in children given annual immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

Alenka M. Zeman, Tyson H. Holmes, Shaye Stamatis, Wenwei Tu, Xiaosong He, Nancy Bouvier, George Kemble, Harry B. Greenberg, David B. Lewis, Ann M. Arvin, Cornelia L. Dekker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: There have been no prior reports of the frequency of circulating influenza-specific, interferon gamma-producing memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells in healthy children who have received multiple influenza immunizations. METHODS: We evaluated 21 previously immunized children, ages 3 to 9 years, before and 1 month after administration of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Frequencies of influenza-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells stimulated with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine or A/Panama (H3N2) virus were determined by flow cytometry, and antibody responses to vaccine strains and a drifted H3N2 strain were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay and neutralizing antibody assays. RESULTS: Mean change in CD4 and in CD8 T-cell frequencies after immunization was 0.01% (P > 0.39) with postimmunization CD4 frequencies higher than CD8 frequencies. Children with more previous vaccinations had a higher baseline frequency of CD4 T-cells (P = 0.0002) but a smaller increase or even a decline from baseline after immunization (P = 0.003). An association between age and change in frequency was not detected. Baseline geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroprotection rates were significantly higher in older children against A/Panama (neutralizing baseline GMT, P = 0.0488) and A/New Caledonia (hemagglutination inhibition baseline GMT and seroprotection, P < 0.0297). Baseline GMTs against B/Hong Kong were not associated with age or quantity of prior vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that children may plateau in CD4 T-cell responses to influenza antigens with repeated exposures and that the number of exposures may play a large role in building a memory CD4 T-cell response to influenza A, perhaps independently from age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-115
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibody
  • Children
  • Influenza vaccine
  • T-cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Humoral and cellular immune responses in children given annual immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this