Human parechovirus 1 (HPEV1) displays an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif in the VP1 capsid protein, suggesting integrins as candidate receptors for HPEV1. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for integrins αvβ3, αvβ1, and αvβ5, which have the ability to recognize the RGD motif, and also a MAb specific for integrin α2β1, an integrin that does not recognize the RGD motif, were tested on A549 cells. Our results showed that integrin αv-specific MAb reduced infectivity by 85%. To specify which αv integrins the virus utilizes, we tested MAbs specific to integrins αvβ3 and αcβv1 which reduced infectivity significantly, while a MAb specific for integrin αvβ5, as well as the MAb specific for α2β1, showed no reduction. When a combination of MAbs specific for integrins αvβ3 and αvβ1 were used, virus infectivity was almost completely inhibited; this shows that integrins αvβ3 and αvβ1 are utilized by the virus. We therefore proceeded to test whether αv integrins' natural ligands fibronectin and vitronectin had an effect on HPEV1 infectivity. We found that vitronectin reduced significantly HPEV1 infectivity, whereas a combination of vitronectin and fibronectin abolished infection. To verify the use of integrins αvβ3 and αvβ1 as HPEV1 receptors, CHO cells transfected and expressing either integrin αvβ3 or integrin αvβ1 were used. It was shown that the virus could successfully infect these cells. However, in immunoprecipitation experiments using HPEV1 virions and allowing the virus to bind to solubilized A549 cell extract, we isolated and confirmed by Western blotting the αvβ3 heterodimer. In conclusion, we found that HPEV1 utilises both integrin αvβ3 and αvβ1 as receptors; however, in cells that express both integrins, HPEV1 may preferentially bind integrin αvβ3.
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