Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS): Structure, Function, and Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The important roles played by human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), the third major component of human milk, in the health of breast-fed infants have been increasingly recognized, as the structures of more than 100 different HMOS have now been elucidated. Despite the recognition of the various functions of HMOS as prebiotics, antiadhesive antimicrobials, and immunomodulators, the roles and the applications of individual HMOS species are less clear. This is mainly due to the limited accessibility to large amounts of individual HMOS in their pure forms. Current advances in the development of enzymatic, chemoenzymatic, whole-cell, and living-cell systems allow for the production of a growing number of HMOS in increasing amounts. This effort will greatly facilitate the elucidation of the important roles of HMOS and allow exploration into the applications of HMOS both as individual compounds and as mixtures of defined structures with desired functions. The structures, functions, and enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of HMOS are briefly surveyed to provide a general picture about the current progress on these aspects. Future efforts should be devoted to elucidating the structures of more complex HMOS, synthesizing more complex HMOS including those with branched structures, and developing HMOS-based or HMOS-inspired prebiotics, additives, and therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Pages113-190
Number of pages78
Volume72
ISBN (Print)9780128021415
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Publication series

NameAdvances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
Volume72
ISSN (Print)00652318

Keywords

  • Antiadhesive
  • Antimicrobial
  • Function
  • Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS)
  • Immunomodulator
  • Prebiotic
  • Structure
  • Synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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  • Cite this

    Chen, X. (2015). Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS): Structure, Function, and Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis. In Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry (Vol. 72, pp. 113-190). (Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry; Vol. 72). Academic Press Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.accb.2015.08.002