Although several CXC chemokines have been shown to induce angiogenesis and play roles in tumor growth, to date, no member of the CC chemokine family has been reported to play a direct role in angiogenesis. Here we report that the CC chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells at nanomolar concentrations. This chemotactic response was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to MCP-1. MCP-1 also induced the formation of blood vessels in vivo as assessed by the chick chorioallantoic membrane and the matrigel plug assays. As expected, the angiogenic response induced by MCP-1 was accompanied by an inflammatory response. With the use of a rat aortic sprouting assay in the absence of leukocytic infiltrates, we ruled out the possibility that the angiogenic effect of MCP-1 depended on leukocyte products. Moreover, the direct effect of MCP-1 on angiogenesis was consistent with the expression of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1, on endothelial cells. Assessment of supernatant from a human breast carcinoma cell line demonstrated the production of MCP-1. Treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human breast carcinoma cells with a neutralizing antibody to MCP-1 resulted in significant increases in survival and inhibition of the growth of lung micrometastases. Taken together, our data indicate that MCP-1 can act as a direct mediator of angiogenesis. As a chemokine that is abundantly produced by some tumors, it can also directly contribute to tumor progression. Therefore, therapy employing antagonists of MCP-1 in combination with other inhibitors of angiogenesis may achieve more comprehensive inhibition of tumor growth. (C) 2000 by The American Society of Hematology.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Jul 1 2000|
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