Human-bird interactions in the United States upland gamebird industry and the potential for zoonotic disease transmission

Katharine E. Slota, Ashley E Hill, Thomas J. Keefe, Richard A. Bowen, Ryan S. Miller, Kristy L. Pabilonia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has emerged to cause severe disease in humans in over 15 countries. Humans who have regular contact with poultry or wild birds may be at greater risk of infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and other zoonotic avian diseases. To develop preventative measures for transmission of avian influenza to high-risk human populations in the United States, we examined human-bird interactions in the upland gamebird industry. Upland gamebird permit holders were surveyed for information on human-bird contact, biosecurity practices, facility management practices, flock/release environment, and bird health. Results suggest that some upland gamebird facilities provide an environment for extensive and intimate human-bird interaction such that humans associated with these facilities may be at greater risk for zoonotic disease transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1115-1123
Number of pages9
JournalVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011
Externally publishedYes



  • Avian Influenza
  • Biosecurity
  • Human-animal interface
  • Upland Gamebird

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology
  • Virology

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