How to make calcium-sensitive microelectrodes

Roger C. Thomas, Donald M Bers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Ca2+-sensitive microelectrodes (CaSMs) directly measure the pCa at their tip, which can be in a small extracellular space or inside a large and robust cell. They do not add to buffering and do not require expensive equipment. But they are time-consuming to make, require a reference electrode in the same location, and tend to create a leak around the point of insertion. In addition, CaSMs only work well with a tip diameter of >1 μm. In this protocol, we describe how to make and use the electrodes and briefly consider possible problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)374-378
Number of pages5
JournalCold Spring Harbor Protocols
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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