Hormone therapy: Physiological complexity belies therapeutic simplicity

Judith L Turgeon, Donald P. McDonnell, Kathryn A. Martin, Phyllis M. Wise

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

239 Scopus citations


The results of the Women's Health Initiative, a study anticipated to provide definitive answers about health benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy, have generated debate and confusion among clinicians, researchers, and the lay public. The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone, which decline at menopause, normally elicit complex tissue-specific responses throughout the body. Major advances are providing a detailed molecular definition of how that differential action is achieved. Here we review estrogen and progestin actions, discuss how effectively knowledge of steroid hormone endocrinology has been incorporated into clinical studies, and consider the impact on modern hormone therapy protocols and pharmaceutical development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1269-1273
Number of pages5
Issue number5675
StatePublished - May 28 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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