Hoof size, shape, and balance as possible risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injury of Thoroughbred racehorses

Albert J. Kane, Susan M Stover, Ian Gardner, Kirsten B. Bock, James Case, Bill J. Johnson, Mark L Anderson, Bradd C. Barr, Barbara M. Daft, Hailu Kinde, Danielle Larochelle, Janet Moore, Jagannatha Mysore, James Stoltz, Leslie Woods, Deryck H. Read, Alex Ardans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To evaluate hoof size, shape, and balance as risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMI), including suspensory apparatus failure (SAF) and cannon bone condylar fracture (CDY) in Thoroughbred racehorses. Animals - 95 Thoroughbred racehorses that died between 1994 and 1996. Procedure - 38 quantitative measures of hoof size, shape, and balance were obtained from orthogonal digital images of the hoof and were compared between case horses with forelimb CMI (70), SAF (43), and CDY (10) injuries and control horses whose death was unrelated to the musculoskeletal system (non-CMI, 25). Comparison of group means between cases and controls was done using ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Results - Odds of CMI were 0.62 times lower for a 5-mm increase in ground surface width difference and 0.49 times lower for a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of SAF were 6.75 times greater with a 10° increase in toe-heel angle difference and 0.58 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of CDY were 0.26 times lower with a 3° increase in toe angle, 0.15 times lower with a 5-mm increase in lateral ground surface width, and 0.35 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Clinical Relevance - Decreasing the difference between toe and heel angles should decrease risk of SAF for Thoroughbred racehorses and should be considered in addition to increasing toe angle alone to help prevent catastrophic injury. Trimming the hoof to perfect mediolateral symmetry may not be a sound approach to avoiding injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1545-1552
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume59
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1998

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Hoof and Claw
racehorses
hooves
risk factors
Toes
Wounds and Injuries
hoof trimming
horses
musculoskeletal system
bone fractures
digital images
forelimbs
Heel
odds ratio
Horses
analysis of variance
death
Musculoskeletal System
Forelimb
Bone Fractures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Hoof size, shape, and balance as possible risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injury of Thoroughbred racehorses. / Kane, Albert J.; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian; Bock, Kirsten B.; Case, James; Johnson, Bill J.; Anderson, Mark L; Barr, Bradd C.; Daft, Barbara M.; Kinde, Hailu; Larochelle, Danielle; Moore, Janet; Mysore, Jagannatha; Stoltz, James; Woods, Leslie; Read, Deryck H.; Ardans, Alex.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 59, No. 12, 12.1998, p. 1545-1552.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kane, Albert J. ; Stover, Susan M ; Gardner, Ian ; Bock, Kirsten B. ; Case, James ; Johnson, Bill J. ; Anderson, Mark L ; Barr, Bradd C. ; Daft, Barbara M. ; Kinde, Hailu ; Larochelle, Danielle ; Moore, Janet ; Mysore, Jagannatha ; Stoltz, James ; Woods, Leslie ; Read, Deryck H. ; Ardans, Alex. / Hoof size, shape, and balance as possible risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injury of Thoroughbred racehorses. In: American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1998 ; Vol. 59, No. 12. pp. 1545-1552.
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abstract = "Objective - To evaluate hoof size, shape, and balance as risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMI), including suspensory apparatus failure (SAF) and cannon bone condylar fracture (CDY) in Thoroughbred racehorses. Animals - 95 Thoroughbred racehorses that died between 1994 and 1996. Procedure - 38 quantitative measures of hoof size, shape, and balance were obtained from orthogonal digital images of the hoof and were compared between case horses with forelimb CMI (70), SAF (43), and CDY (10) injuries and control horses whose death was unrelated to the musculoskeletal system (non-CMI, 25). Comparison of group means between cases and controls was done using ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Results - Odds of CMI were 0.62 times lower for a 5-mm increase in ground surface width difference and 0.49 times lower for a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of SAF were 6.75 times greater with a 10° increase in toe-heel angle difference and 0.58 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of CDY were 0.26 times lower with a 3° increase in toe angle, 0.15 times lower with a 5-mm increase in lateral ground surface width, and 0.35 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Clinical Relevance - Decreasing the difference between toe and heel angles should decrease risk of SAF for Thoroughbred racehorses and should be considered in addition to increasing toe angle alone to help prevent catastrophic injury. Trimming the hoof to perfect mediolateral symmetry may not be a sound approach to avoiding injury.",
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AU - Kane, Albert J.

AU - Stover, Susan M

AU - Gardner, Ian

AU - Bock, Kirsten B.

AU - Case, James

AU - Johnson, Bill J.

AU - Anderson, Mark L

AU - Barr, Bradd C.

AU - Daft, Barbara M.

AU - Kinde, Hailu

AU - Larochelle, Danielle

AU - Moore, Janet

AU - Mysore, Jagannatha

AU - Stoltz, James

AU - Woods, Leslie

AU - Read, Deryck H.

AU - Ardans, Alex

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