Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in ethnic enclaves in California

Sally L. Glaser, Ellen T. Chang, Christina A. Clarke, Theresa H Keegan, Juan Yang, Scarlett Lin Gomez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence varies with migration and nativity, suggesting an influence of acculturation on risk. In population-based California data including 1483 Hispanic and 348 Asian/Pacific Islander (API) HL cases, we examined HL rates in residential neighborhoods classified by ethnic enclave status (measuring degree of acculturation) and socioeconomic status (SES). Rates were inversely associated with enclave intensity, although associations varied by gender and race. In females, the enclave effect was stronger in low-SES settings, but rates were higher in less-ethnic/high-SES than more-ethnic/low-SES neighborhoods-diminishing enclave intensity affected rates more than higher SES. In Hispanics, associations were modest, and only females experienced SES modification of rates; in APIs, the enclave effect was much stronger. Thus, acculturation measured by residence in ethnic enclaves affects HL rates independently of neighborhood SES but in complex patterns. Living in less-ethnic neighborhoods may increase HL rates by facilitating social isolation and other gender-specific exposures implicated in risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3270-3280
Number of pages11
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Acculturation
  • epidemiology
  • ethnic enclave
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • immigration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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