As the population of people living with HIV ages, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are common among those with HIV. In addition, some antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens contribute to conditions such as hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. However, inflammation is increasingly recognized as a key contributor to ASCVD. HIV infection induces immune activation and inflammation through several mechanisms. Co-infections such as hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus along with HIV itself likely initiate immune activation and inflammation. Translocation of bacterial products across a compromised epithelial barrier as a result of HIV infection is another mechanism by which the immune system is activated. In this article we summarize the current understanding of drivers of immune activation and inflammation among those with HIV and the contribution of each to ASCVD.
- hepatitis C
- microbial translocation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine