HIV as Trojan exosome: Immunological paradox explained?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The HIV pandemic is still a major global challenge, despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs. An effective vaccine would be the ideal approach to bringing the pandemic to an end. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be an elusive goal. Three major human HIV vaccine trials revealed a strong trend toward greater risk of infection among vaccine recipients versus controls. A similar observation was made in a macaque SIV vaccine study. The mechanism explaining this phenomenon is not known. Here, a model is presented that may explain the troubling results of vaccine studies and an immunological paradox of HIV pathogenesis: preferential infection of HIV-specific T cells. The central hypothesis of this perspective is that as "Trojan exosomes" HIV particles can directly activate HIV-specific T cells enhancing their susceptibility to infection. Understanding the biology of HIV as an exosome may provide insights that enable novel approaches to vaccine development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1715
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume8
Issue numberDEC
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Exosomes
HIV
Vaccines
AIDS Vaccines
Pandemics
SAIDS Vaccines
T-Lymphocytes
Macaca
Infection
HIV Infections
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Antigen presentation
  • Exosomes
  • HIV
  • HIV vaccines
  • Immune modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

HIV as Trojan exosome : Immunological paradox explained? / Hildreth, James.

In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 8, No. DEC, 1715, 01.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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