HIV-1 alters intestinal expression of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes: Implications for antiretroviral drug disposition

Olena Kis, Sumathi Sankaran-Walters, M. Tozammel Hoque, Sharon L. Walmsley, Satya Dandekar, Reina Bendayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


This study investigated the effects of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the expression of intestinal drug efflux transporters, i.e., P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs), in the human upper intestinal tract. Intestinal biopsy specimens were obtained from HIV-negative healthy volunteers, ART-naive HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects, and HIV+ subjects receiving ART (10 in each group). Intestinal tissue expression of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes was examined by microarray, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR), and immunohistochemistry analyses. Microarray analysis demonstrated significantly lower expression of CYP3A4 and ABCC2/MRP2 in the HIV+ ART-naive group than in uninfected subjects. qPCR analysis confirmed significantly lower expression of ABCC2/MRP2 in ART-naive subjects than in the control group, while CYP3A4 and ABCG2/BCRP showed a trend toward decreased expression. Protein expression of MRP2 and BCRP was also significantly lower in the HIV+ naive group than in the control group and was partially restored to baseline levels in HIV+ subjects receiving ART. In contrast, gene and protein expression of ABCB1/Pgp was significantly increased in HIV+ subjects on ART relative to HIV+ ART-naive subjects. These data demonstrate that the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters is significantly altered in therapy-naive HIV+ subjects and in those receiving ART. Since CYP3A4, Pgp, MRPs, and BCRP metabolize or transport many antiretroviral drugs, their altered expression with HIV infection may negatively impact drug pharmacokinetics in HIV+ subjects. This has clinical implications when using data from healthy volunteers to guide ART.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2771-2781
Number of pages11
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'HIV-1 alters intestinal expression of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes: Implications for antiretroviral drug disposition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this