Twelve patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis had repeat volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans after a mean of 3.4 years to determine whether progressive hippocampal volume loss occurred. Seizure-free patients showed no change in hippocampal volume. Patients with continuing seizures had a decline in ipsilateral hippocampal volume that correlated with seizure frequency. Patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis have progressive hippocampal atrophy.
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