For over 10 years, we have known that the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has correlated with the increase in skeletal muscle size and strength that occurs following resistance exercise. Initial cell culture and rodent models of muscle growth demonstrated that the activation of mTORC1 is common to hypertrophy induced by growth factors and increased loading. The further observation that high loads increased the local production of growth factors led to the paradigm that resistance exercise stimulates the autocrine production of factors that act on membrane receptors to activate mTORC1, and this results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Over the last few years, there has been a paradigm shift. From both human and rodent studies, it has become clear that the phenotypic and molecular responses to resistance exercise occur in a growth factor-independent manner. Although the mechanism of load-induced mTORC1 activation remains to be determined, it is clear that it does not require classical growth factor signaling.
- Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)