High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

Yan Zhang, Barry Cense, Jungtae Rha, Ravi Jonnal, Weihua Gao, Robert Zawadzki, John S Werner, Steve Jones, Scot Olivier, Donald T. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

188 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the first observations of the three-dimensional morphology of cone photoreceptors in the living human retina. Images were acquired with a high-speed adaptive optics (AO) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) camera. The AO system consisted of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and bimorph mirror (AOptix) that measured and corrected the ocular and system aberrations at a closed-loop rate of 12 Hz. The bimorph mirror was positioned between the XY mechanical scanners and the subject's eye. The SD-OCT system consisted of a superluminescent diode and a 512 pixel line scan charge-coupled device (CCD) that acquired 75,000 A-scans/s. This rate is more than two times faster than that previously reported. Retinal motion artifacts were minimized by quickly acquiring small volume images of the retina with and without AO compensation. Camera sensitivity was sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. The regular distribution of bright spots observed within C-scans at the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and at the posterior tips of the OS were found to be highly correlated with one another and with the expected cone spacing. No correlation was found between the posterior tips of the OS and the other retinal layers examined, including the retinal pigment epithelium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4380-4394
Number of pages15
JournalOptics Express
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2006

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photoreceptors
adaptive optics
cones
retina
tomography
high speed
cameras
mirrors
epithelium
pigments
scanners
artifacts
aberration
charge coupled devices
pixels
diodes
spacing
sensitivity
sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. / Zhang, Yan; Cense, Barry; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi; Gao, Weihua; Zawadzki, Robert; Werner, John S; Jones, Steve; Olivier, Scot; Miller, Donald T.

In: Optics Express, Vol. 14, No. 10, 2006, p. 4380-4394.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Yan ; Cense, Barry ; Rha, Jungtae ; Jonnal, Ravi ; Gao, Weihua ; Zawadzki, Robert ; Werner, John S ; Jones, Steve ; Olivier, Scot ; Miller, Donald T. / High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. In: Optics Express. 2006 ; Vol. 14, No. 10. pp. 4380-4394.
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