High-speed adaptive optics functional imaging of cone photoreceptors at a 100 MHz pixel rate

Ravi Jonnal, Jungtae Rha, Yan Zhang, Barry Cense, Donald T. Miller

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We evaluate a novel non-invasive technique for observing fast physiological processes, such as phototransduction, in single photoreceptor cells in the living human eye. The method takes advantage of the interference of multiple reflections within the outer segments of cones. This self-interference phenomenon is highly sensitive to phase changes such as those caused by variations in refractive index and scatter within the photoreceptor cell. A highspeed flood-illumination retina camera equipped with adaptive optics (AO) is used to observe this interference pattern, and to monitor the changes in those patterns in response to visible stimuli. AO and high frame rates are necessary for resolving individual cones and their fast temporal dynamics, respectively. Preliminary results suggest that a frame rate of 192 fps. corresponding to a full field 1024×512 pixel rate of 100 MHz, may be sufficient for observing these early stages of phototransduction. This pixel rate is at least 80 and 10 times faster than current flood-illumination and SLO pixel rates, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in vivo single photoreceptor functional imaging, and the first demonstration of in vivo optical detection of phototransduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOphthalmic Technologies XVII
StatePublished - Aug 31 2007
Externally publishedYes
EventOphthalmic Technologies XVII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 20 2007Jan 23 2007


OtherOphthalmic Technologies XVII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Adaptive optics
  • Flood-illumination retinal imaging
  • Functional imaging
  • Photoreceptors
  • Retina
  • Retinal imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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