High spatial resolution EPI using an odd number of interleaves

Michael H. Buonocore, David C. Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Ghost artifacts in echoplanar imaging (EPI) arise from phase errors caused by differences in eddy currents and gradient ramping during left-to- right traversal of k((x) (forward echo) versus right-to-left traversal of k(x) (reverse echo). Reference scans do not always reduce the artifact and may make image quality worse. To eliminate the need for reference scans, a ghost artifact reduction technique based on image phase correction was developed, in which phase errors are directly estimated from images reconstructed separately using only the forward or only the reverse echos. In practice, this technique is applicable only to single-shot EPI that produces only one ghost (shifted 1/2 the field of view from the parent image), because the technique requires that the ghosts do not completely overlap the parent image. For higher spatial resolution, typically an even number of separate k- space traversals (interleaves) are combined to produce one large data set. In this paper, we show that data obtained from an even number of interleaves cannot be combined to produce only one ghost, and image phase correction cannot be applied. We then show that data obtained from an odd number of interleaves can be combined to produce only one ghost, and image phase correction can be applied to reduce ghost intensity significantly. This 'odd- number interleaf EPI' provides spatial and temporal resolution tradeoffs that are complementary to, or can replace, those of even-number interleaf EPI. Odd-number interleaf EPI may be particularly useful for MR systems in which reference scans have been unreliable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1199-1205
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1999


  • Ghost artifact suppression
  • Image phase correction
  • Interleaved echo planar imaging
  • Magnetic resonance imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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