Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular childhood malignancy, with a prevalence of one in 18,000 children younger than 5 years old in the United States. In 80% of patients, retinoblastoma is diagnosed before the age of three, and in 95% of patients, retinoblastoma is diagnosed before the age of five. Although reports exist of retinoblastoma in adults, onset beyond 6 years of age is rare. Broadly, retinoblastoma may be classified into two groups: sporadic and heritable. In either case, the origin of the tumor is a biallelic mutation in primitive neuroepithelial cells. Although their details vary, several staging schemes are used to describe the extent of retinoblastoma according to the following four general criteria: intraocular location, extraocular (extraorbital) location, central nervous system disease, and systemic metastases. In the past decade, substantial changes have taken place in terms of staging and monitoring treatment in patients with retinoblastoma. Diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma involve a multidisciplinary approach, for which imaging is a vital component. Increasing awareness and concerns about the effects of radiation in patients with retinoblastoma have led to a shift away from external-beam radiation therapy and toward chemotherapy and locoregional treatment, as well as the establishment of magnetic resonance imaging as the most important imaging modality for diagnosis, staging, and treatment monitoring.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging