High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women

Peter J Havel, Raymond Townsend, Leslie Chaump, Karen Teff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

209 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 ± 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730- kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 ± 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 ± 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 ± 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 ± 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 ± 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 ± 16%;P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 ± 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 ± 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)334-341
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes
Volume48
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Fingerprint

Leptin
Meals
Fats
Carbohydrates
Insulin
High Fat Diet
Adipocytes
Glucose
Weight Gain
Area Under Curve
Lunch
Breakfast
Dietary Fats
Energy Metabolism
Adipose Tissue
Weight Loss
Rodentia
Fasting
Eating
Weights and Measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women. / Havel, Peter J; Townsend, Raymond; Chaump, Leslie; Teff, Karen.

In: Diabetes, Vol. 48, No. 2, 1999, p. 334-341.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Havel, Peter J ; Townsend, Raymond ; Chaump, Leslie ; Teff, Karen. / High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women. In: Diabetes. 1999 ; Vol. 48, No. 2. pp. 334-341.
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title = "High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women",
abstract = "Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 ± 1{\%}) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730- kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60{\%} of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61{\%}, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 ± 7{\%}, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 ± 14{\%}, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 ± 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 ± 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 ± 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 ± 16{\%};P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 ± 8{\%} (P < 0.005) and 38 ± 12{\%} (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.",
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N2 - Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 ± 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730- kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 ± 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 ± 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 ± 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 ± 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 ± 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 ± 16%;P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 ± 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 ± 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

AB - Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 ± 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730- kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 ± 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 ± 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 ± 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 ± 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 ± 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 ± 16%;P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 ± 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 ± 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

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