High endemism of mosquitoes on São Tomé and Príncipe Islands: evaluating the general dynamic model in a worldwide island comparison

Claire Loiseau, Martim Melo, Yoosook Lee, Hugo Pereira, Mark J. Hanemaaijer, Gregory C Lanzaro, Anthony J. Cornel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The archipelago of São Tomé and Príncipe is a major centre of endemism for vertebrates but, to date, arthropods remain poorly studied, with the exception of mosquitoes due to their medical and economic relevance. Previous studies, over 20 years old, recorded 26 species of mosquitoes for São Tomé and 14 for Príncipe, of which six and two were endemic to each island respectively. We collected mosquito larvae and adults on both islands and found three species as a first record, putting the number of mosquito species collected at least once on São Tomé at 29 and 15 for Príncipe. We compared the mosquito richness on São Tomé and Príncipe islands to 71 other oceanic islands represented within 20 archipelagoes worldwide. We used the general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography and the associated ATT2 (for Area+Time+Time2) model to explain two different metrics: (i) the richness of the single-island endemics and (ii) the richness of archipelago endemics. We also included other island characteristics in our model, such as isolation and latitude. Our data compilation and comparative analyses revealed an overall low richness of endemic mosquitoes on islands, with the highest number of single-island endemics found on São Tomé Island. As predicted, we found a positive relationship between our two richness metrics and the general dynamic model ATT2, although the model with the area (A) alone also explained endemic richness. Isolation was also predictor of mosquito diversification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-79
Number of pages11
JournalInsect Conservation and Diversity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Endemism
  • general dynamic model
  • Gulf of Guinea
  • island biogeography
  • mosquito

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Insect Science


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