Hepatitis B virus and cigarette smoking: Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Hong Kong

K. C. Lam, M. C. Yu, J. W C Leung, B. E. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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One hundred seven Chinese patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) were compared with 107 hospital controls for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and smoking, drinking, and dietary habits. 82% of PHC cases were hepatitis B surface antigen positive compared to 18% of controls (relative risk, 21.3; 95% confidence limits, 10.1 and 45.9). Prior history of jaundice was significantly related to PHC, independent of hepatitis B surface antigen status. There was a significant association between cigarette smoking and PHC negative for hepatitis B surface antigen. The relative risk of hepatitis B surface antigen-negative PHC for heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day) was 3.3 compared to light smokers and nonsmokers (95% confidence limits, 1.0 and 13.4). Our data indicated that infection by the hepatitis B virus and cigarette smoking were independent risk factors for PHC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5246-5248
Number of pages3
JournalCancer Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1982
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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