Neonatal encephalopathy due to a hypoxic-ischemic event is commonly associated with cardiac dysfunction and acute pulmonary hypertension; both therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming modify loading conditions and blood flow. The pathophysiological contributors to disease are complex with a high degree of clinical overlap and traditional bedside measures used to assess circulatory adequacy have multiple confounders. Comprehensive, quantitative echocardiography may be used to delineate the relative contribution of lung parenchymal, pulmonary vascular, and cardiac disease to hypotension and/or hypoxemic respiratory failure. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the contributors to hemodynamic instability following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. Our proposed approach to therapy focuses on physiopathological considerations with interventions individualized to this potentially complex condition and considers the pharmacological idiosyncrasies, which may occur among neonates with NE presenting with multiorgan dysfunction while undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health