Hematophagous diptera collected from a horse and paired carbon dioxide-baited suction trap in southern California: Relevance to West Nile virus epizootiology

Alec C. Gerry, Tamim M. Nawaey, Parag B. Sanghrajka, Joanna Wisniewska, Pam Hullinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hematophagous Diptera landing on a horse were removed by vacuum, and their numbers were related to a paired carbon dioxide-baited suction trap at three locations in southern California where West Nile virus activity was high during the preceding year. Insects collected from the horse included mosquitoes (nine species), biting midges (Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones), and black flies (Simulium bivittatum Malloch). Mosquitoes were predominantly collected from the head, crest, withers, neck, chest, and shoulders of the horse, whereas biting midges and black flies were predominantly collected from the ventral midline of the horse. Culex erythrothorax Dyar was by far the most abundant mosquito species collected overall. Frequency of engorgement for mosquitoes captured from the horse ranged by species from zero to 58.3%, with Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say having the lowest value (16.7% or one of six mosquitoes) of species that fed on the horse. The number of insects captured at the horse and paired CO2-baited suction trap was not different for Anopheles franciscanus McCracken, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and S. bivittatum. Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was captured in greater numbers in the CO2-baited suction trap, whereas Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanji, Cx. erythrothorax, Culiseta inornata (Williston), and Culiseta particeps (Adams) were captured in greater numbers from the horse. The horse biting rate was very low for Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, intermediate for Cx. tarsalis, and very high for Cx. erythrothorax. Both Cx. tarsalis and Cx. erythrothorax should be considered likely epizootic vectors of West Nile virus to horses in rural southern California.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-124
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

suction traps
West Nile virus
Suction
Carbon Dioxide
Diptera
Horses
epidemiology
carbon dioxide
horses
Culicidae
Ceratopogonidae
Simuliidae
Culex
Anopheles
Anopheles franciscanus
Insects
Culicoides sonorensis
Culiseta inornata
Culiseta
biting rates

Keywords

  • California
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Horse
  • Mosquito
  • West Nile virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Hematophagous diptera collected from a horse and paired carbon dioxide-baited suction trap in southern California : Relevance to West Nile virus epizootiology. / Gerry, Alec C.; Nawaey, Tamim M.; Sanghrajka, Parag B.; Wisniewska, Joanna; Hullinger, Pam.

In: Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 45, No. 1, 01.01.2008, p. 115-124.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Hematophagous Diptera landing on a horse were removed by vacuum, and their numbers were related to a paired carbon dioxide-baited suction trap at three locations in southern California where West Nile virus activity was high during the preceding year. Insects collected from the horse included mosquitoes (nine species), biting midges (Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones), and black flies (Simulium bivittatum Malloch). Mosquitoes were predominantly collected from the head, crest, withers, neck, chest, and shoulders of the horse, whereas biting midges and black flies were predominantly collected from the ventral midline of the horse. Culex erythrothorax Dyar was by far the most abundant mosquito species collected overall. Frequency of engorgement for mosquitoes captured from the horse ranged by species from zero to 58.3{\%}, with Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say having the lowest value (16.7{\%} or one of six mosquitoes) of species that fed on the horse. The number of insects captured at the horse and paired CO2-baited suction trap was not different for Anopheles franciscanus McCracken, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and S. bivittatum. Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was captured in greater numbers in the CO2-baited suction trap, whereas Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanji, Cx. erythrothorax, Culiseta inornata (Williston), and Culiseta particeps (Adams) were captured in greater numbers from the horse. The horse biting rate was very low for Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, intermediate for Cx. tarsalis, and very high for Cx. erythrothorax. Both Cx. tarsalis and Cx. erythrothorax should be considered likely epizootic vectors of West Nile virus to horses in rural southern California.",
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