Hematologic Conditions of Small Ruminants

Jennifer Johns, Meera Heller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Anemia is a clinically important syndrome in small ruminants. Anemia can be divided into regenerative and nonregenerative forms. Differentials for regenerative anemia include hemorrhage owing to gastrointestinal or external parasitism or hemostatic disorders, and hemolysis owing to infectious, osmotic, toxic, and nutritional causes. Differentials for nonregenerative anemia include inflammatory and chronic diseases, renal failure, pancytopenia, copper deficiency, and heavy metal toxicosis. Iron deficiency anemia can be caused by chronic gastrointestinal and external hemorrhage or nutritional deficiency and may be mildly regenerative or nonregenerative. Appropriate diagnostic tests are described along with treatments, including blood transfusion, parasite control, and prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-197
Number of pages15
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Anemia
  • Goat
  • Hematology
  • Hemolysis
  • Parasitism
  • Regeneration
  • Ruminant
  • Sheep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals


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