Heart failure caused by toxoplasmosis in a fennec fox (Fennecus zerda)

Jack J. Kottwitz, Diane E. Preziosi, Margaret A. Miller, Jose A. Ramos-Vara, David J Maggs, John D. Bonagura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


A male fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) kit was examined for lethargy, inappetence, and weight loss. Clinical findings included respiratory distress, a gallop rhythm, and retinochoroiditis. Radiography indicated pleural effusion and cardiomegaly. Echocardiographic findings included left ventricular dilatation, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and atrioventricular valvular regurgitation. Necropsy findings were compatible with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure caused by myocarditis. Histopathology showed a disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii causing myocarditis, skeletal polymyositis, gastrointestinal myositis, and panuveitis. Toxoplasma-induced myocarditis should be included in the differential diagnosis of heart failure and retinochoroiditis in the fennec fox.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)501-507
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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