Headaches comprise a relatively common pain condition, with etiologies ranging from benign to life-threatening. The International Headache Society categorizes headaches into primary, such as migraine, cluster or tension, and secondary, such as due to underlying infection, neoplasm or other disease process. It is crucial to recognize life-threatening causes, as well as to identify benign but incapacitating etiologies. This chapter focuses on the differential diagnosis for refractory headache patients, with particular emphasis on two of the most common and disabling headache disorders, migraine and cluster headache.
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