Halicephalobus gingivalis (H. deletrix) infection in two horses in southern California.

Hailu Kinde, M. Mathews, L. Ash, J. St Leger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Two horses, a 16-year-old male Holsteiner and a 5-year-old male miniature horse, were diagnosed with halicephalobiasis at the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System, San Bernardino Branch, in April and June of 1998. Over a period of 4 weeks, the Holsteiner horse developed renal dysfunction, blepharospasm, and blindness in the right eye. A 15-cm-diameter mass was detected on ultrasound examination in the right kidney. Terminally, the animal developed seizures and was euthanized. The miniature horse had a 6-week-long illness characterized by testicular enlargement and uveitis. This animal developed ataxia and died. Necropsy examination revealed bilateral enlargement of the kidneys in both horses, petechial hemorrhages of the optic nerve (Holsteiner), and a diffusely firm and enlarged left testicle (miniature horse). Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed granulomatous nephritis, optic neuritis, retinitis, and encephalitis in both horses and orchitis in only the miniature horse with intralesional rhabditiform nematodes. Halicephalobus gingivalis was found in the urine sediment of both animals and in semen of the Holsteiner horse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)162-165
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • veterinary(all)


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